reading

Reading for Study

Reading is a deceptive skill, for it is not a single process, but a number of processes. Thus, while you might be a fluent reader, in that you can swiftly and easily decode the letter-markings, and quickly access the meaning of the words, that doesn't mean you're a skilled reader of informational texts.

Reading effectively for information or instruction, unlike reading a story, needs to be a very active process, for comprehension is far more difficult than it is in the familiar format of a story. That's why so-called 'speed reading' can be so problematic.

Reading "actively" involves:

  • thinking about what you’re reading
  • asking yourself questions about it
  • trying to relate it to information you already know.

How well you do this depends in part on your understanding of the topic. Thus, you may be a skilled reader of philosophy texts, but be completely at a loss when confronted by a physics text.

Nor is it only a matter of content knowledge. How you go about your active reading also depends in part on the subject you're reading in. Reading scientific texts, for example, is very different from reading a history text; both require a different approach — different skills — compared to reading an economics text. And reading in a foreign language is, of course, different again.

Reading for study is difficult to separate from note-taking, for the active processing you need to do is helped considerably by note-taking strategies. The two go hand in hand, and more so the more difficult the text is.

Improving your reading skills, then, involves not simply improving reading skills themselves, but also:

  • recognizing the different processes involved in reading, so that you can accurately pinpoint the source of your comprehension difficulties (for example, it may be simply a jargon issue - unfamiliarity with the specialist vocabulary used)
  • increasing your knowledge and understanding of the topic
  • improving your note-taking skills, so that you know the best way to approach different types of text, to organize the information for better understanding.

 

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Working memory, expertise & retrieval structures

In a 1987 experiment (1), readers were presented with a text that included one or other of these sentences:

After doing a few warm-up exercises, John put on his sweatshirt and began jogging.

or

After doing a few warm-up exercises, John took off his sweatshirt and began jogging.

Both texts went on to say: John jogged halfway around the lake.

After reading the text, readers were asked if the word sweatshirt had appeared in the story. Now here is the fascinating and highly significant result: those who read that John had put on a sweatshirt responded “yes” more quickly than those who had read that he had taken off his sweatshirt.

Why is this so significant? Because it tells us something important about the reading process, at least in the minds of skilled readers. They construct mental models. If it was just a matter of the mechanical lower-order processing of letters and words, why would there be a difference in responses? Neither text was odd — John could as well have put on a sweatshirt before going out for a jog as taken it off — so there shouldn’t be a surprise effect. So what is it? Why is the word sweatshirt not as tightly / strongly linked in the second case as it is in the first? If they were purely textbase links (links generated by the textbase itself), the links should be equivalent. The difference in responses implies that the readers are making links with something outside the textbase, with a mental model.

Mental models, or as they are sometimes called in this context, situation models, are sometimes represented as lists of propositions, but in most cases it seems likely that they are actually analogue in nature. Thus the real world should be better represented by the situation model than by the text. Moreover, a spatial situation model will be similar in many ways to an image, with all the advantages that that entails.

All of this has relevance to two very important concepts: working memory and expertise.

Now, I’m always talking about working memory. This time I want to discuss not so much the limited attentional capacity that is what we chiefly mean by working memory, but another, more theoretical concept: the idea of long-term working memory.

Think about reading. To make sense of the text you need to remember what’s gone before — this is why working memory is so important for the reading process. But we know how limited working memory is; it can only hold a very small amount — is it really possible to hold all the information we need to make sense of what we’re reading? Shouldn’t there be constant delays as we access needed information from long-term memory? But there aren’t.

It’s suggested that the answer lies in the use of long-term working memory, a retrieval structure that keeps a network of linked propositions readily available.

Think about when you are studying / reading a difficult text in a subject you know well. Compare this to studying a difficult text in a subject you don’t know well. In the latter case, you may have to painfully backtrack, checking earlier statements, trying to remember what was said before, trying to relate what you are reading to things you already know. In the former case, you seem to have a vastly expanded amount of readily accessible relevant information, from the text itself and from your long-term memory.

The connection between long-term working memory and expertise is obvious. And expertise has already been conceptualised in terms of retrieval structures (see for example my article on expertise). In other words, you can increase your working memory in a particular domain by developing expertise, and the shortest route to developing expertise is to concentrate on building effective retrieval structures.

One of the areas where this is particularly crucial is that of reading scientific texts. Now we all know that scientific texts are much harder to process than, for example, stories. And there are several reasons for that. One is the issue of language: any science has its own technical vocabulary and you won't get far without knowing it. But another reason, far less obvious to the untutored, concerns the differences in structure — what may be termed differences of genre.

Now it might seem self-evident that stories are far simpler than science, than any non-fiction texts, and indeed a major distinction is usually made between narrative texts and expository texts, but it’s rather like the issue of faces and other objects. Are we specially good at faces because we're 'designed' to be (i.e., we have special 'expert' modules for processing faces)? Or is it simply that we have an awful lot of practice at it, because we are programmed to focus on human faces almost as soon as we are born?

In the same way, we are programmed for stories: right from infancy, we are told stories, we pay attention to stories, we enjoy stories. Stories have a particular structure (and within the broad structure, a set of sub-structures), and we have a lot of practice in that structure. Expository texts, on the other hand, don't get nearly the same level of practice, to the extent that many college students do not know how to handle them — and more importantly, don't even realize that that is what they're missing: a retrieval structure for the type of text they're studying.

References: 

Glenberg, A.M., Meyer, M. & Lindem, K. 1987. Mental models contribute to foregrounding during text comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 26, 69-83.

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International Comparisons of Achievement

Two large-scale international studies have become established to compare countries' performance in the core subjects of literacy, mathematics and science.

TIMSS: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

TIMSS is an international study involving 50 countries that assesses math and science achievement at four year intervals. It has been running since 1995. Students are assessed in the 4th and 8th years of school, and in their final year. The next assessment round will be in 2007.

The study uses four benchmarks (advanced, high, intermediate, low) to gather a more complete picture of trends within a country. Thus we can not only approve high performing countries like Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Korea, and Hong Kong, for having about 1/3 or more of their 8th grade students reach the advanced benchmark in mathematics, and about 2/3 to 3/4 reaching the high benchmark, but we can also note, for example, that although the Netherlands doesn't have high numbers reaching the advanced level (some 10% of 8th graders and 5% of 4th graders), it does at least do an excellent job of educating all its students, since 97% of its 8th graders and 99% of its 4th graders reach the low benchmark. It also enables us to spot trends across time — for example, in general, countries have improved their levels at the lower end, but not at the high end.

Mathematics

Grade 8 Advanced Benchmark

Students can organize information, make generalizations, solve non-routine problems, and draw and justify conclusions from data. They can compute percent change and apply their knowledge of numeric and algebraic concepts and relationships to solve problems. Students can solve simultaneous linear equations and model simple situations algebraically. They can apply their knowledge of measurement and geometry in complex problem situations. They can interpret data from a variety of tables and graphs, including interpolation and extrapolation.

Grade 8 High Benchmark

Students can apply their understanding and knowledge in a wide variety of relatively complex situations. They can order, relate, and compute with fractions and decimals to solve word problems, operate with negative integers, and solve multi-step word problems involving proportions with whole numbers. Students can solve simple algebraic problems including evaluating expressions, solving simultaneous linear equations, and using a formula to determine the value of a variable. Students can find areas and volumes of simple geometric shapes and use knowledge of geometric properties to solve problems. They can solve probability problems and interpret data in a variety of graphs and tables.

Grade 8 Intermediate Benchmark

Students can apply basic mathematical knowledge in straightforward situations. They can add, subtract, or multiply to solve one-step word problems involving whole numbers and decimals. They can identify representations of common fractions and relative sizes of fractions. They understand simple algebraic relationships and solve linear equations with one variable. They demonstrate understanding of properties of triangles and basic geometric concepts including symmetry and rotation. They recognize basic notions of probability. They can read and interpret graphs, tables, maps, and scales.

Grade 8 Low Benchmark

Students have some basic mathematical knowledge. The few items at this level provide some evidence that students can do basic computations with whole numbers without a calculator. They can select the two-place decimal closest to a whole number. They can multiply two-place decimal numbers by three-place decimal numbers with calculators available. They recognize some basic terminology and read information from a line on a graph.

Grade 4 Advanced Benchmark

Students can apply their understanding and knowledge in a wide variety of relatively complex situations. They demonstrate a developing understanding of fractions and decimals and the relationship between them. They can select appropriate information to solve multi-step word problems involving proportions. They can formulate or select a rule for a relationship. They show understanding of area and can use measurement concepts to solve a variety of problems. They show some understanding of rotation. They can organize, interpret, and represent data to solve problems.

Grade 4 High Benchmark

Student can apply their knowledge and understanding to solve problems. Student can solve multistep word problems involving addition, multiplication, and division. They can use their understanding of place value and simple fractions to solve problems. They can identify a number sentence that represents situations. Students show understanding of three-dimensional objects, how shapes can make other shapes, and simple transformation in a plane. They demonstrate a variety of measurement skills and can interpret and use data in tables and graphs to solve problems.

Grade 4 Intermediate Benchmark

Students can apply basic mathematical knowledge in straightforward situations. They can read, interpret, and use different representations of numbers. They can perform operations with three and four-digit numbers and decimals. They can extend simple patterns. They are familiar with a range of two-dimensional shapes and read and interpret different representations of the same data.

Grade 4 Low Benchmark

Students have some basic mathematical knowledge. Students demonstrate an understanding of whole numbers and can do simple computations with them. They demonstrate familiarity with the basic properties of triangles and rectangles. They can read information from simple bar graphs.

from http://timss.bc.edu/PDF/t03_download/T03_M_Chap2.pdf

2003 Performance

In 2003, the international averages were:

Benchmark Grade 4 Grade 8
advanced 9% 7%
high 33% 23%
intermediate 63% 49%
low 82% 74%

There is quite a wide variation around these means. For example, Singapore is head and shoulders above everyone, scoring 44% advanced, 77% high, 93% intermediate, 99% low at grade 8, and 38% advanced, 73% high, 91% intermediate, 97% low at grade 4. The only countries that come close are also Asian: Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Japan, and the Republic of Korea (for Grade 8; grade 4 figures weren't available). The highest of the remaining countries at grade 8 was Hungary at 11% advanced, 41% high, 75% intermediate, 95% low, and at grade 4 England at 14% advanced, 43% high, 75% intermediate, 93% low -- a substantial difference in results! But still a vast improvement over those at the bottom of the table. Here's 2 tables roughly grouping countries, using the top performing country in each group as a benchmark:

Grade 8 advanced high intermediate low
highest performing countries (Singapore) 44% 77% 93% 99%
Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Republic of Korea, Hong Kong, Japan        
above average countries (Hungary) 11% 41% 75% 95%
Hungary, Netherlands, Belgium, Estonia, Slovak Republic, Australia, United States        
slightly below average countries (Malaysia) 6% 30% 66% 93%
Malaysia, Russian Federation, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, England, New Zealand, Scotland        
below average countries (Romania) 4% 21% 52% 79%
Romania, Serbia, Sweden, Slovenia, Italy, Bulgaria, Armenia        
really below average countries (Cyprus) 1% 13% 45% 77%
Cyprus, Moldova, Macedonia, Jordan, Indonesia, Egypt, Norway, Lebanon, Palestinian National Authority, Iran, Chile, Philippines, Bahrain, South Africa, Tunisia, Morocco, Botswana, Saudi Arabia, Ghana        

note that the range at the bottom end is still very large; although most of the countries in the last category at least got over 50% to the low benchmark, 8 did not -- the worst only got 9% through.

Grade 4 advanced high intermediate low
highest performing countries (Singapore) 38% 73% 91% 97%
Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, Chinese Taipei        
above average countries (England) 14% 43% 75% 93%
England, Russian Federation, Belgium, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary        
slightly below average countries (Cyprus) 6% 30% 66% 93%
Cyprus, United States, Moldova, Italy, Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand        
below average countries (Scotland) 4% 21% 52% 79%
Scotland, Slovenia, Armenia, Norway        
really below average countries (Philippines) 1% 13% 45% 77%
Philippines, Iran, Tunisia, Morocco        

note that there are substantially fewer countries' results available at grade 4

You can find out more about international comparisons of achievements in mathematics, science and reading at the official website for TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) & PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study): http://timss.bc.edu/

The full 2003 Mathematics Report can be downloaded at: http://timss.bc.edu/timss2003i/mathD.html

Science

Grade 8 Advanced Benchmark

Students demonstrate a grasp of some complex and abstract science concepts. They can apply knowledge of the solar system and of Earth features, processes, and conditions, and apply understanding of the complexity of living organisms and how they relate to their environment.

They show understanding of electricity, thermal expansion, and sound, as well as the structure of matter and physical and chemical properties and changes. They show understanding of environmental and resource issues. Students understand some fundamentals of scientific investigation and can apply basic physical principles to solve some quantitative problems. They can provide written explanations to communicate scientific knowledge.

Grade 8 High Benchmark

Students demonstrate conceptual understanding of some science cycles, systems, and principles. They have some understanding of Earth’s processes and the solar system, biological systems, populations, reproduction and heredity, and structure and function of organisms. They show some understanding of physical and chemical changes, and the structure of matter. They solve some basic physics problems related to light, heat, electricity, and magnetism, and they demonstrate basic knowledge of major environmental issues. They demonstrate some scientific inquiry skills. They can combine information to draw conclusions; interpret information in diagrams, graphs and tables to solve problems; and provide short explanations conveying scientific knowledge and cause/effect relationships.

Grade 8 Intermediate Benchmark

Students can recognize and communicate basic scientific knowledge across a range of topics. They recognize some characteristics of the solar system, water cycle, animals, and human health. They are acquainted with some aspects of energy, force and motion, light reflection, and sound. Students demonstrate elementary knowledge of human impact on and changes in the environment. They can apply and briefly communicate knowledge, extract tabular information, extrapolate from data presented in a simple linear graph, and interpret pictorial diagrams.

Grade 8 Low Benchmark

Students recognize some basic facts from the life and physical sciences. They have some knowledge of the human body and heredity, and demonstrate familiarity with some everyday physical phenomena. Students can interpret some pictorial diagrams and apply knowledge of simple physical concepts to practical situations.

Grade 4 Advanced Benchmark

Students can apply knowledge and understanding in beginning scientific inquiry. Students demonstrate some understanding of Earth’s features and processes and the solar system. They can communicate their understanding of structure, function, and life processes in organisms and classify organisms according to major physical and behavioral features. They demonstrate some understanding of physical phenomena and properties of common materials. Students demonstrate beginning scientific inquiry knowledge and skills.

Grade 4 High Benchmark

Students can apply knowledge and understanding to explain everyday phenomena. Students demonstrate some knowledge of Earth structure and processes and the solar system and some understanding of plant structure, life processes, and human biology. They demonstrate some knowledge of physical states, common physical phenomena, and chemical changes. They provide brief descriptions and explanations of some everyday phenomena and compare, contrast, and draw conclusions.

Grade 4 Intermediate Benchmark

Students can apply basic knowledge and understanding to practical situations in the sciences. Students demonstrate knowledge of some basic facts about Earth’s features and processes and the solar system. They recognize some basic information about human biology and health and show some understanding of development and life cycles of organisms. They know some basic facts about familiar physical phenomena, states, and changes. They apply factual knowledge to practical situations, interpret pictorial diagrams, and combine information to draw conclusions.

Grade 4 Low Benchmark

Students have some elementary knowledge of the earth, life, and physical sciences. Students recognize simple facts presented in everyday language and context about Earth’s physical features, the seasons, the solar system, human biology, and the development and characteristics of animals and plants. They recognize facts about a range of familiar physical phenomena — rainbows, magnets, electricity, boiling, floating, and dissolving. They interpret labeled pictures and simple pictorial diagrams and provide short written responses to questions requiring factual information.

from http://timss.bc.edu/PDF/t03_download/T03_S_Chap2.pdf

2003 Performance

In 2003, the international averages were:

Benchmark Grade 4 Grade 8
advanced 7% 6%
high 30% 25%
intermediate 63% 54%
low 82% 78%

There is, again, wide variation around these means. Singapore is again head and shoulders above everyone. The only countries that come close are also Asian: Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Japan, and the Republic of Korea (for Grade 8; grade 4 figures weren't available). The highest of the remaining countries at grade 8 was Hungary at 11% advanced, 41% high, 75% intermediate, 95% low, and at grade 4 England at 14% advanced, 43% high, 75% intermediate, 93% low — a substantial difference in results! But still a vast improvement over those at the bottom of the table. Here's 2 tables roughly grouping countries, using the top performing country in each group as a benchmark:

Grade 8 advanced high intermediate low
highest performing countries (Singapore) 33% 66% 85% 95%
Singapore, Chinese Taipei        
above average countries (Republic of Korea) 17% 57% 88% 98%
Republic of Korea, Japan, Hungary, England, Hong Kong, Estonia        
slightly above average countries (United States) 11% 41% 75% 93%
United States, Australia, Sweden, New Zealand, Slovak Republic, Netherlands, Lithuania, Slovenia, Russian Federation, Scotland        
slightly below average countries (Israel) 5% 24% 57% 85%
Israel, Latvia, Malaysia, Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Belgium, Jordan, Norway        
below average countries (Serbia) 2% 16% 48% 79%
Serbia, Macedonia, Moldova, Armenia, Palestinian National Authority, Egypt, Iran        
really below average countries (Chile) 1% 5% 24% 56%
Chile, South Africa, Cyprus, Bahrain, Indonesia, Lebanon, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Tunisia, Botswana, Ghana        

again the range at the bottom end is still very large; although many of the countries in the last category at least got over 50% to the low benchmark, 7 did not -- the worst only got 13% through.

Grade 4 advanced high intermediate low
highest performing countries (Singapore) 25% 61% 86% 95%
Singapore, England, Chinese Taipei, United States, Japan        
above average countries (Russian Federation) 11% 39% 74% 93%
Russian Federation, Hungary, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, Latvia, Hong Kong        
slightly below average countries (Scotland) 5% 27% 66% 90%
Scotland, Moldova, Netherlands, Lithuania, Slovenia, Belgium        
really below average countries (Cyprus) 2% 17% 55% 86%
Cyprus, Norway, Armenia        
really below average countries (Philippines) 2% 6% 19% 34%
Philippines, Iran, Tunisia, Morocco        

note that there are substantially fewer countries' results available at grade 4

You can find out more about international comparisons of achievements in mathematics, science and reading at the official website for TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) & PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study): http://timss.bc.edu/

The full 2003 Science Report can be downloaded at: http://timss.bc.edu/timss2003i/scienceD.html

PIRLS

PIRLS is an international study of reading literacy involving 35 countries. It began in 2001, and is intended to take place every five years. It assesses performance at year 4 (around 10 years of age), although in a few cases the students are in their 3rd or 5th year of formal schooling. The PIRLS 2001 assessment was based on eight different texts of 400 to 700 words in length – four literary and four informational. Test items were designed to measure four major processes of reading comprehension:

  • Focus on and Retrieve Explicitly Stated Information.
    The student needed to recognize the relevance of the information or ideas presented in the text in relation to the information sought, but looking for specific information or ideas typically involved locating a sentence or phrase (approximately 20% of the assessment).
  • Make Straightforward Inferences.
    Based mostly on information contained in the texts, usually these types of questions required students to connect two ideas presented in adjacent sentences and fill in a “gap” in meaning. Skilled readers often make these kinds of inferences automatically, recognizing the relationship even though it is not stated in the text (approximately 40%).
  • Interpret and Integrate Ideas and Information.
    For these questions, students needed to process the text beyond the phrase or sentence level. Sometimes they were asked to make connections that were not only implicit, but needed to draw on their own knowledge and experiences (approximately 25%).
  • Examine and Evaluate Content, Language, and Textual Elements.
    These questions required students to draw on their knowledge of text genre and structure, as well as their understanding of language conventions and devices (approximately 15%).

23 of the 35 countries had average reading scores significantly above the international average of 500; the range was large, with the highest scoring country (Sweden) scoring 561, compared to the lowest scoring 327 (Belize). I've grouped them into five categories according to performance. As with the TIMSS results, the highest performing country in the group is the one whose average score is given:

  average range1
highest performing countries (Sweden) 561  
Sweden, Netherlands, England, Bulgaria, Latvia, Canada, Lithuania, Hungary, United States, Italy, Germany, Czech Republic   542-561
above average countries (New Zealand) 529  
New Zealand, Scotland, Singapore, Russian Federation, Hong Kong, France, Greece   524-529
average countries (Slovak Republic) 518  
Slovak Republic, Iceland, Romania, Israel, Slovenia, Norway   499-518
below average countries (Cyprus) 494  
Cyprus, Moldova, Turkey, Macedonia   442-494
really below average countries (Colombia) 422  
Colombia, Argentina, Iran, Kuwait, Morocco, Belize   327-422

1. the difference between the country with the lowest average and the one with the highest average

It should be noted that the range of difference between the highest 5% and lowest 5% of students in most countries was 200 to 300 points -- similar to the range in average performance across countries.

In all countries, girls had significantly higher achievement than boys. Italy had the smallest difference, with an 8-point difference compared an 11-point or greater difference for all other countries. The international average was 20 points. Countries with a difference of 25 points or more included Moldova, New Zealand, Iran, Belize and Kuwait.

For more details on countries' performance, see http://timss.bc.edu/pirls2001i/pdf/P1_IR_Ch01.pdf

Although the PIRLS, like the TIMSS, used benchmarks, the performance on the benchmarks as a whole for each country doesn't seem to be available. However, you can read about benchmark items and countries' achievements on particular ones at http://timss.bc.edu/pirls2001i/pdf/P1_IR_Ch03.pdf

The full 2001 Literacy Report can be downloaded at: http://timss.bc.edu/pirls2001i/PIRLS2001_Pubs_IR.html

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Research from the National Reading Panel

  • A meta-analysis of the research on phonemic awareness training showed quite clearly the benefits of this technique, as a component of a successful reading program.
  • Similarly, the detailed analysis of many studies involving phonics instruction revealed that systematic phonics instruction produces significant benefits for students in kindergarten through 6th grade and for children having difficulty learning to read.
  • However, systematic phonics instruction requires phonemic awareness training to be effective, and, like phonemic awareness, must be only one component of a reading program — it is not sufficient in itself.
  • A review of the research also found that guided repeated oral reading procedures had a significant and positive impact on word recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of grade levels.
  • There is still insufficient research evidence obtained from studies of high methodological quality to support the idea that having students engage in independent silent reading with minimal guidance or feedback improves reading achievement, including fluency.
  • The available data do suggest that independent silent reading is not an effective practice when used as the only type of reading instruction to develop fluency and other reading skills, particularly with students who have not yet developed critical alphabetic and word reading skills.
  • The research done in vocabulary instruction and text comprehension was insufficient to enable the Panel to carry out the type of meta-analysis done for phonemic awareness and phonics instruction. The Panel did however make various recommendations regarding specific strategies on the basis of their analysis of the research.

Introduction

In 1997, the U.S. Congress asked the Director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) at the National Institutes of Health, in consultation with the Secretary of Education, to convene a national panel to assess the effectiveness of different approaches used to teach children to read. For over two years, the National Reading Panel reviewed research-based knowledge on reading instruction and held open panel meetings in Washington, DC, and regional meetings across the United States. On April 13, 2000, the NRP concluded its work and submitted "The Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read."

Below are edited excerpts from the report, regarding their findings on a variety of reading instruction strategies.

Phonemic Awareness

Phonemes are the smallest units composing spoken language. For example, the words “go” and “she” each consist of two sounds or phonemes. Instruction in phonemic awareness (PA) involves teaching children to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken syllables and words. PA instruction should not be confused with phonics instruction (see below), or with auditory discrimination, which refers to the ability to recognize whether two spoken words are the same or different.

An extensive and rigorous analysis of studies involving PA training found that teaching children to manipulate phonemes in words was highly effective under a variety of teaching conditions with a variety of learners across a range of grade and age levels and that teaching phonemic awareness to children significantly improves their reading more than instruction that lacks any attention to PA.

The evidence seems very clear that PA training caused improvement in students’ phonemic awareness, reading, and spelling. PA instruction also helped normally achieving children learn to spell, but was not effective for improving spelling in disabled readers.

The characteristics of PA training found to be most effective in enhancing PA, reading, and spelling skills included:

  • explicitly and systematically teaching children to manipulate phonemes with letters,
  • focusing the instruction on one or two types of phoneme manipulations rather than multiple types,
  • teaching children in small groups.

It is important to note that PA instruction is a component of a successful reading program, not a complete reading program.

It is also important to note that there are many ways to teach PA effectively, and that the motivation of both students and their teachers is a critical ingredient of success.

Phonics instruction

Phonics instruction is a way of teaching reading that stresses the acquisition of letter-sound correspondences and their use in reading and spelling. The primary focus of phonics instruction is to help beginning readers understand how letters are linked to sounds (phonemes) to form letter-sound correspondences and spelling patterns and to help them learn how to apply this knowledge in their reading. Phonics instruction may be provided systematically or incidentally. A variety of systematic approaches are listed below. In incidental phonics instruction, the teacher simply highlights particular elements opportunistically when they appear in text.

The detailed analysis of studies involving phonics instruction revealed that systematic phonics instruction produces significant benefits for students in kindergarten through 6th grade and for children having difficulty learning to read.

The ability to read and spell words was enhanced in kindergartners who received systematic beginning phonics instruction. First graders who were taught phonics systematically were better able to decode and spell, and they showed significant improvement in their ability to comprehend text. Older children receiving phonics instruction were better able to decode and spell words and to read text orally, but their comprehension of text was not significantly improved.

Systematic synthetic phonics instruction also had a positive and significant effect on disabled readers’ reading skills. Additionally, systematic synthetic phonics instruction was significantly more effective in improving low socioeconomic status children’s alphabetic knowledge and word reading skills than instructional approaches that were less focused on these initial reading skills.

Across all grade levels, systematic phonics instruction improved the ability of good readers to spell. The impact was strongest for kindergartners and decreased in later grades. For poor readers, the impact of phonics instruction on spelling was small.

Although conventional wisdom has suggested that kindergarten students might not be ready for phonics instruction, this assumption was not supported by the data. The effects of systematic early phonics instruction were significant and substantial in kindergarten and the 1st grade, indicating that systematic phonics programs should be implemented at those age and grade levels.

While the findings provide converging evidence that explicit, systematic phonics instruction is a valuable and essential part of a successful classroom reading program, there is a need to be cautious in giving a blanket endorsement of all kinds of phonics instruction. In particular, to be able to make use of letter-sound information, children need phonemic awareness. Programs that focus too much on the teaching of letter-sound relations and not enough on putting them to use are unlikely to be very effective. Systematic phonics instruction is only one component—albeit a necessary component—of a total reading program; systematic phonics instruction should be integrated with other reading instruction in phonemic awareness, fluency, and comprehension strategies to create a complete reading program. Unfortunately, there is as yet insufficient research to tell us exactly how phonics instruction can be most effectively incorporated into a successful reading program.

Phonics Instructional Approaches

Analogy Phonics —Teaching students unfamiliar words by analogy to known words (e.g., recognizing that the rime segment of an unfamiliar word is identical to that of a familiar word, and then blending the known rime with the new word onset, such as reading brick by recognizing that -ick is contained in the known word kick, or reading stump by analogy to jump).

Analytic Phonics—Teaching students to analyze letter-sound relations in previously learned words to avoid pronouncing sounds in isolation.

Embedded Phonics—Teaching students phonics skills by embedding phonics instruction in text reading, a more implicit approach that relies to some extent on incidental learning.

Phonics through Spelling—Teaching students to segment words into phonemes and to select letters for those phonemes (i.e., teaching students to spell words phonemically).

Synthetic Phonics —Teaching students explicitly to convert letters into sounds (phonemes) and then blend the sounds to form recognizable words.

Fluency

Fluency is one of several critical factors necessary for reading comprehension. Despite its importance as a component of skilled reading, fluency is often neglected in the classroom. Reading practice is generally recognized as an important contributor to fluency. Two instructional approaches, each of which has several variations, have typically been used to teach reading fluency:

  • guided repeated oral reading - encourages students to read passages orally with systematic and explicit guidance and feedback from the teacher
  • independent silent reading - encourages students to read silently on their own, inside and outside the classroom, with minimal guidance or feedback

On the basis of a detailed analysis of the available research that met NRP methodological criteria, the Panel concluded that guided repeated oral reading procedures that included guidance from teachers, peers, or parents had a significant and positive impact on word recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of grade levels. These studies were conducted in a variety of classrooms in both regular and special education settings with teachers using widely available instructional materials.

These results apply to all students—good readers as well as those experiencing reading difficulties. Nevertheless, there were important gaps in the research. In particular, the Panel could find no multiyear studies providing information on the relationship between guided oral reading and the emergence of fluency.

Independent Silent Reading

There has been widespread agreement that encouraging students to engage in wide, independent, silent reading increases reading achievement. Literally hundreds of correlational studies find that the best readers read the most and that poor readers read the least. These correlational studies suggest that the more that children read, the better their fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. However, these findings are correlational in nature, and correlation does not imply causation.

Unfortunately only 14 of the studies that examined the effect of independent silent reading on reading achievement could meet the NRP research review methodology criteria, and these studies varied widely in their methodological quality and the reading outcome variables measured. Thus, a meta-analysis could not be conducted. Rather, the 14 studies were examined individually and in detail to identify converging trends and findings in the data.

With regard to the efficacy of having students engage in independent silent reading with minimal guidance or feedback, the Panel was unable to find a positive relationship between programs and instruction that encourage large amounts of independent reading and improvements in reading achievement, including fluency.

In other words, even though encouraging students to read more is intuitively appealing, there is still not sufficient research evidence obtained from studies of high methodological quality to support the idea that such efforts reliably increase how much students read or that such programs result in improved reading skills.

The available data do suggest that independent silent reading is not an effective practice when used as the only type of reading instruction to develop fluency and other reading skills, particularly with students who have not yet developed critical alphabetic and word reading skills.

Comprehension

Vocabulary Instruction

The importance of vocabulary knowledge has long been recognized in the development of reading skills. For various reasons, a formal meta-analysis could not be conducted. Instead the vocabulary instruction database was reviewed for trends across studies. Fifty studies dating from 1979 to the present were reviewed in detail. There were 21 different methods represented in these studies.

The studies reviewed suggest that vocabulary instruction does lead to gains in comprehension, but that methods must be appropriate to the age and ability of the reader.

The following approaches appeared to be helpful:

  • learning words before reading a text
  • techniques such as task restructuring and repeated exposure (including having the student encounter words in various contexts)
  • substituting easy words for more difficult words can assist low-achieving students.
  • use of computers in vocabulary instruction was found to be more effective than some traditional methods in a few studies
  • vocabulary also can be learned incidentally in the context of storybook reading or in listening to others

The Panel concluded that:

  • vocabulary should be taught both directly and indirectly
  • repetition and multiple exposures to vocabulary items are important
  • learning in rich contexts, incidental learning, and use of computer technology all enhance the acquisition of vocabulary
  • direct instruction should include task restructuring as necessary and should actively engage the student
  • dependence on a single vocabulary instruction method will not result in optimal learning.

They also concluded that, while much is known about the importance of vocabulary to success in reading, there is little research on the best methods or combinations of methods of vocabulary instruction and the measurement of vocabulary growth and its relation to instruction methods.

Text Comprehension Instruction

Comprehension is defined as “intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between text and reader” (Harris & Hodges, 1995). Thus, readers derive meaning from text when they engage in intentional, problem solving thinking processes. The data suggest that text comprehension is enhanced when readers actively relate the ideas represented in print to their own knowledge and experiences and construct mental representations in memory.

In its review, the Panel identified 16 categories of text comprehension instruction of which 7 appear to have a solid scientific basis for concluding that these types of instruction improve comprehension in non-impaired readers. Some of these types of instruction are helpful when used alone, but many are more effective when used as part of a multiple-strategy method. The types of instruction are:

  • Comprehension monitoring, where readers learn how to be aware of their understanding of the material;
  • Cooperative learning, where students learn reading strategies together;
  • Use of graphic and semantic organizers (including story maps), where readers make graphic representations of the material to assist comprehension;
  • Question answering, where readers answer questions posed by the teacher and receive immediate feedback;
  • Question generation, where readers ask themselves questions about various aspects of the story;
  • Story structure, where students are taught to use the structure of the story as a means of helping them recall story content in order to answer questions about what they have read; and
  • Summarization, where readers are taught to integrate ideas and generalize from the text information.

In general, the evidence suggests that teaching a combination of reading comprehension techniques is the most effective. When students use them appropriately, they assist in recall, question answering, question generation, and summarization of texts. When used in combination, these techniques can improve results in standardized comprehension tests.

Nevertheless, some questions remain unanswered. More information is needed on ways to teach teachers how to use such proven comprehension strategies. The literature also suggests that teaching comprehension in the context of specific academic areas—for example, social studies—can be effective. If this is true of other subject areas, then it might be efficient to teach comprehension as a skill in content areas.

Questions remain as to which strategies are most effective for which age groups. More research is necessary to determine whether the techniques apply to all types of text genres, including narrative and expository texts, and whether the level of difficulty of the texts has an impact on the effectiveness of the strategies. Finally, it is critically important to know what teacher characteristics influence successful instruction of reading comprehension.

References: 

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Retrieved September 2, 2004 from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.htm

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Reading

  • Poor readers may be divided into two groups: those whose problems stem primarily from an innate disruption in their neural systems, and those whose problems stem from deprivation.
  • In both cases, early intervention is very important.
  • In both cases, training specifically aimed at activating or strengthening specific neural circuitry is required.
  • Although individuals will have different impairments requiring instructional programs focusing on different skill components, an effective reading program will need to involve phonemic awareness training.
  • Encouragingly, there are now a number of training programs that have had positive results with retraining the brains of dyslexics.
  • Reading problems are more common in boys, and it appears that the genders develop different neural connections at different times. It may be that current reading programs favor the pattern of development in girls (I'm speculating here).

Types of reading disability

A longitudinal study that used imaging to compare brain activation patterns has identified two types of reading disability:

  • a primarily inherent type with higher cognitive ability (poor readers who compensate for disability), and
  • a more environmentally influenced type with lower cognitive skills and attendance at more disadvantaged schools (persistently poor readers).

It seems, compensated poor readers are able to overcome some of the disability, improving their ability to read words accurately and to understand what they read, while persistently poor readers continue to experience difficulties.Brain activation patterns showed a disruption in the neural systems for reading in compensated readers (specifically, a relative underactivation in posterior neural systems for reading located in left parietotemporal and occipitotemporal regions), while persistently poor readers had the neural circuitry for reading real words, but it had not been properly activated.These results point to the importance of providing early interventions aimed at stimulating both the ability to sound out words and to understand word meanings for children at risk for reading difficulties associated with disadvantage.

The importance of childhood environment is also emphasized by a study of older adults that found that the larger a person's head in adulthood, the less likely their cognitive abilities are to decline in later years. Head size in adulthood is determined in infancy: during the first year of life, babies' brains double in size, and by the time they are six, their brain weight has tripled. These, it appears, are the crucial years for laying down brain cells and neural connections — pointing to the importance of providing both proper nourishment and intellectual stimulation in these early years.

Impaired reading skills are found in some 20% of children - in boys, more than girls. Dyslexia - a disability which is found across all socioeconomic classes and all ethnicities - may be thought of as the low end of a continuum of reading ability. Training that helps dyslexics can also help those whose problems with reading are of lesser magnitude.

Gender differences

It has been suggested that the reason reading disabilities are more common among boys is that teachers simply tend to recognize the problem in boys more often, but it does now seem clear that boys really do have more reading difficulties than girls. Analysis of four large-scale studies of reading in children, involving some 9,800 children, found about 20% of the boys had reading disabilities compared with about 11% of the girls.

An EEG study of gender differences in the emerging connectivity of neural networks associated with phonological processing, verbal fluency, higher-level thinking and word retrieval (skills needed for beginning reading) in preschoolers confirms different patterns of growth in building connections between boys and girls. These differences point to the different advantages each gender brings to learning to read, and suggests the need for different emphases in teaching boys and girls to read. Boys favor vocabulary sub-skills needed for comprehension while girls favor fluency and phonic sub-skills needed for the mechanics of reading.

Reading programs

No educational system in the world has mastered the problem of literacy; every existing system produces an unacceptably high level of failures. So, we cannot point to a particular program of instruction and say, this is the answer. Indeed, I am certain that such an aim would be foredoomed to failure - given the differences between individuals, how can anyone believe that there is some magic bullet that will work on everyone?

Having said that, we have a far greater idea now of the requirements of an effective literacy program. One of the reasons for that is the work of the National Reading Panel in the United States, which spent some three years analyzing a huge number of studies into various aspects of reading instruction. I have summarized their findings here.

Direct instruction in specific components of reading skills is clearly only part, albeit a major part, of improving literacy. There is also the role of providing a stimulating environment, most particularly in the very early years. Little is known about the precise nature of the stimulation that would be most productive for providing the foundation for later literacy, but we may speculate that, apart form the obvious (being read to, etc), music may also be beneficial. Although I am not aware of any studies specifically looking at the possible benefits of music training for developing reading skills in children, recent research does provide evidence that giving children music instruction benefits their verbal memory.

Dyslexia

Dyslexics who are identified at a very early age (1st grade or earlier) have significantly fewer problems in learning to read than those who are not diagnosed until later. About 74%of the children with dyslexia who are poor readers in 3rd grade remain poor readers in the 9th grade, and often can’t read well as adults either. The earlier dyslexia is recognized and proper instruction given the better. Dyslexia tends to run in families.

Other research also points to the importance of early intervention.The brains of children with learning problems not only appear to develop more slowly than those of their unaffected counterparts but also actually may stop developing around the time of puberty's onset. In the study, children with impairments started out about three years behind, but their rate of improvement was very similar to that of the children without impairments — until around 10 years, when further development in the children with learning problems stopped.

What causes dyslexia?

We always want simple answers, but, as so often, it seems likely that there is no single, simple answer to the problem of dyslexia. Imaging studies have revealed that different phonological skills relate to activity in different parts of the brain when children read.There are probably several neurobiological profiles that correspond to different subtypes of dyslexia, each associated with varying deficits in different phonological skills.

For example, a key predictor of reading problems is lack of a skill called "rapid naming" - basically, being able to quickly retrieve the names of very familiar letters and numbers. It's been suggested that inability to rapidly name, and inability to differentiate between sounds, may be separate causes of dyslexia.

Interestingly, confirming a very old theory of dyslexia, it seems that normally developing readers learn to suppress the visual images reported by the right hemisphere of the brain - these images potentially interfere with input from the left. Dyslexic readers also appear to process auditory and visual sensory cues differently than do normal readers. During an auditory matching task, dyslexic readers showed increased activity in the visual pathway of the brain, while that same region deactivated in normal readers.

The tendency for dyslexia to run in families points to a genetic aspect. It has been found that brain images of people with a family history of dyslexia show significant reduction of gray matter in centers associated with language processing.

How to help dyslexics

A number of educational tools have been developed to teach people with dyslexia to read. Remembering that dyslexia is a label for a variety of different skill deficits, it is not surprising that an effective training program is not the same for everyone. The dyslexic person’s individual strengths and weaknesses must be assessed to find the program that will help best.

What is exciting is the converging evidence in recent years that it is indeed possible to re-train dyslexic brains. Clearly, the earlier the better, but one encouraging recent study found clear evidence for the benefits of a comprehensive reading program for dyslexic children aged 11-12 years. The study mapped the brain activation patterns of dyslexic children and good readers of the same age during two types of reading tests: phoneme mapping (which tests the ability to make correct associations between letters or letter combinations and sounds in nonsense words - e.g., if oa in ploat stands for the same sound as ow in crow) and morpheme mapping (having to decide if one word comes from another word - e.g., builder and build (yes); corner and corn (no)).

Both groups of children were found to use the same specific parts of their brains to perform the reading tasks, however, the activation of these regions was much weaker in the dyslexic children. The children with dyslexia then received a three-week training program based on principles outlined by the National Reading Panel Research findings of the NRP). After this program the levels of brain activation were found to be essentially the same in the two groups.The improvement in activation in the dyslexics was mirrored in improved reading scores.

Another recent study used an interactive computer game called MovingToRead (MTR) to significantly improve reading skills in poor second-grade readers within three months by practicing left-right movement discrimination for 5 to 10 minutes once or twice a week. It has been suggested that immature motion pathways — the circuit of neurons that helps readers determine the location of letters of a word and words on a page — may be related to reading problems in children. The therapy appears to be most effective with second-graders (age 7).

Other studies, such as Fast ForWord, and the Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing program (LiPS), also appear to have had good results. The point is not so much that any one specific program is the answer. Remember that different dyslexics will have different impairments, and accordingly, different programs will be effective for different individuals. Having said that, there are some common aspects to these programs. In particular, any such program should emphasize phoneme awareness.

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Why good readers might have reading comprehension difficulties and how to deal with them

The limitations of working memory have implications for all of us. The challenges that come from having a low working memory capacity are not only relevant for particular individuals, but also for almost all of us at some points of our lives. Because working memory capacity has a natural cycle — in childhood it grows with age; in old age it begins to shrink. So the problems that come with a low working memory capacity, and strategies for dealing with it, are ones that all of us need to be aware of.

References: 

Press release on the first study: http://www.physorg.com/news/2012-01-high-school-whiz-kids-comprehension.html; see also http://rrl.educ.ualberta.ca/research.html

Second study: Banas, S., & Sanchez, C. a. (2012). Working Memory Capacity and Learning Underlying Conceptual Relationships Across Multiple Documents. Applied Cognitive Psychology, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1002/acp.2834

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The changing nature of literacy. Part 4: Models & Literacies

This post is the fourth and last part in a four-part series on how education delivery is changing, and the set of literacies required in today’s world. Part 1 looked at textbooks; Part 2 at direct instruction/lecturing; Part 3 at computer learning.. This post looks at learning models and types of literacy.

 

Literacy. What does it mean?

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The changing nature of literacy. Part 1: Textbooks

As we all know, we are living in a time of great changes in education and (in its broadest sense) information technology. In order to swim in these new seas, we and our children need to master new forms of literacy. In this and the next three posts, I want to explore some of the concepts, applications, and experiments that bear on this.

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Reading Scientific Text

There are many memory strategies that can be effective in improving your recall of text. However, recent research shows that it is simplistic to think that you can improve your remembering by applying any of these strategies to any text. Different strategies are effective with different types of text.

One basic classification of text structure would distinguish between narrative text and expository text. We are all familiar with narrative text (story-telling), and are skilled in using this type of structure. Perhaps for this reason, narrative text tends to be much easier for us to understand and remember. Most study texts, however, are expository texts.

Unfortunately, many students (perhaps most) tend to be blind to the more subtle distinctions between different types of expository structure, and tend to treat all expository text as a list of facts. Building an effective mental model of the text (and thus improving your understanding and recall) is easier, however, if you understand the type of structure you're dealing with, and what strategy is best suited to deal with it.

Identifying structure

Five common types of structure used in scientific texts are:

  • Generalization: the extension or clarification of main ideas through explanations or examples
  • Enumeration: listing of facts
  • Sequence: a connecting series of events or steps
  • Classification: grouping items into classes
  • Comparison / contrast: examining the relationships between two or more things

Let's look at these in a little more detail.

Generalization

In generalization, a paragraph always has a main idea. Other sentences in the paragraph either clarify the main idea by giving examples or illustrations, or extend the main idea by explaining it in more detail. Here's an example:

Enumeration

Enumeration passages may be a bulleted or numbered list, or a list of items in paragraph form, for example:

Sequence

A sequence describes a series of steps in a process. For example:

Classification

In classification, items are grouped into categories. For example:

Comparison / contrast

This type of text looks at relationships between items. In comparison, both similarities and differences are studied. In contrast, only the differences are noted. For example:

[examples taken from Cook & Mayer 1988]

A study [1] involving undergraduate students inexperienced in reading science texts (although skilled readers otherwise) found that even a small amount of training substantially improved the students' ability to classify the type of structure and use it appropriately.

Let's look briefly at the training procedures used:

Training for generalization

This involved the following steps:

  • identify the main idea
  • list and define the key words
  • restate the main idea in your own words
  • look for evidence to support the main idea
    • what kind of support is there for the main idea?
    • are there examples, illustrations?
    • do they extend or clarify the main idea?

Training for enumeration

This involved the following steps:

  • name the topic
  • identify the subtopics
  • organize and list the details within each subtopic, in your own words

Training for sequence

This involved the following steps:

  • identify the topic
  • name each step and outline the details within each
  • briefly discuss what's different from one step to another

[Only these three structures were covered in training]

Most effective text structures

Obviously, the type of structure is constrained by the material covered. We can, however, make the general statement that text that encourages the student to make connections is most helpful in terms of both understanding and memory.

In light of this, compare/contrast would seem to be the most helpful type of text. Another text structure that is clearly of a similar type has also been found to be particularly effective: refutational text. In a refutational text, a common misconception is directly addressed (and refuted). Obviously, this is only effective when there is a common misconception that stands in the way of the reader's understanding -- but it's surprising how often this is the case! Incompatible knowledge is at least as bad as a lack of knowledge in hindering the learning of new information, and it really does need to be directly addressed.

Refutational text is however, not usually enough on its own. While helpful, it is more effective if combined with other, supportive, strategies. One such strategy is elaborative interrogation, which involves (basically) the student asking herself why such a fact is true.

Unfortunately, however, text structures that encourage connection building are not the most common type of structure in scientific texts. Indeed, it has been argued that "the presentation of information in science textbooks is more likely to resemble that of a series of facts [and thus] presents an additional challenge that may thwart readers' efforts to organize text ideas relative to each other".

Most effective strategies

The fundamental rule (that memory and understanding are facilitated by any making of connections) also points to the strategies that are most effective.

As a general rule, strategies that involve elaborating the connections between concepts in a text are the most effective, but it is also true that the specifics of such strategies vary according to the text structure (and other variables, such as the level of difficulty).

Let's look at how such a linking strategy might be expressed in the context of our five structures.

Generalization

Restatement in your own words -- paraphrasing -- is a useful strategy not simply because it requires you to actively engage with the material, but also because it encourages you to connect the information to be learned with the information you already have in your head. We can, however, take this further in the last stage, when we look for the evidence supporting the main idea, if we don't simply restrict ourselves to the material before us, but actively search our minds for our own supporting evidence.

Enumeration

This text structure is probably the hardest to engage with. You may be able to find a connective thread running through the listed items, or be able to group the listed items in some manner, but this structure is the one most likely to require mnemonic assistance (see verbal mnemonics and list-learning mnemonics).

Sequence

With this text structure, items are listed, but there is a connecting thread — a very powerful one. Causal connections are ones we are particularly disposed to pay attention to and remember; they are the backbone of narrative text. So, sequence has a strong factor going for it.

Illustrations particularly lend themselves to this type of structure, and research has shown that memory and comprehension is greatly helped when pictures portraying a series of steps, in a cause-and-effect chain, are closely integrated with explanatory text. The closeness is vital — a study that used computerized instruction found dramatic improvement in memory when the narration was synchronous with the animation, for example, but there was no improvement when the narration was presented either before or after the text. If you are presented with an illustration that is provided with companion text, but is not closely integrated with it, you will probably find it helpful to integrate it with the text yourself.

Classification

Classification is frequently as simple as grouping items. However, while this is in itself a useful strategy that helps memory, it will be more effective if the connections between and within groups are strong and clear. Connections within groups generally emphasize similarities, while connections between groups emphasize both similarities (between closely connected groups) and differences. Ordering groups in a hierarchical system is probably the type of arrangement most familiar to students, but don't restrict yourself to it. Remember, the important thing is that the arrangement has meaning for you, and that the connections emphasize the similarities and differences.

Compare / contrast

This type of structure lends itself, of course, to making connections. Your main strategy is probably therefore to simply organize the material in such a way as to make those connections clear and explicit.

References: 

  1. Cook, L.K. & Mayer, R.E. 1988. Teaching readers about the structure of scientific text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 448-54.
  2. Castaneda, S., Lopez, M. & Romero, M. 1987. The role of five induced learning strategies in scientific text comprehension. The Journal of Experimental Education, 55(3), 125–131.
  3. Diakidoy, I.N., Kendeou, P. & Ioannides, C. 2002. Reading about energy: The effects of text structure in science learning and conceptual change. http://www.edmeasurement.net/aera/papers/KENDEOU.PDF

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